Focus on Math

Helping children become mathematicians!

Basic Facts: Mental Math as a Foundation for Multiplication Fact Strategies March 16, 2012

Basic Facts are still very important. Although newer curricula put a greater emphasis on problem solving, communication, reasoning, and representation of numbers, basic facts are still an integral part number sense in students. If a student is a good “memorizer”, then learning the multiplication facts will not be difficult. However, for many students the random bits information we call “facts” don’t stick well in the brain (the brain tends to remember information that is personally meaningful!), and thus it is important that we support those students in their learning by teaching and rehearsing thinking strategies.

Before we look at those particular strategies that are useful for learning the multiplication facts, there are some “prerequisites” to consider. Many of the strategies I will be suggesting use some kind of mental math to help students go from a known fact to an unknown fact.

The mantra for students is this: “Use something you KNOW to get to something you DON’T KNOW!” This is a comforting thing for students, particularly those who have struggled with learning their facts. They tend to feel that there is no hope for them. In some cases they have worked for a very long time, even several years, to memorize these facts, and at this point they feel like it is a hopeless task. We need to offer hope in the notion that they can begin their learning with things they do know, and build from there.

Consider working with your students to build these kinds of skills, remembering to tie them to concrete and/or visuals (such as ten frames or 100 dot arrays):
• Subtracting a single digit number from a multiple of ten (e.g., students use the known fact of 10 – 6 to solve 60 – 6. Tie into ten frames).
• Subtracting a double-digit number from a multiple of ten (e.g., build on the previous skill and have students solve 60 – 16 by subtracting first 10 and then 6.)
• Doubling any 2 digit number, using whole-part-part strategies if necessary. It may be easy to double 12 (think 10 + 10 + 2 + 2), but it will be harder to double 16. Students might consider 16 as 15 + 1, then double each of the two parts, and add back together (think 15 + 15 + 1 + 1 — look for “friendly numbers ending in 5’s or 0’s).
• Adding any single digit number to a double-digit number, particularly when the sum of the one’s place digits is greater than 10. E.g., 35 + 7 can be considered as 35 + 5 + 2; 48 + 6 can be considered as 48 + 2 + 6. (Pull apart the number to be added in a way that makes a group of ten.)
• Subtracting any single digit number from a double-digit number, particularly when “regrouping” would be required. E.g., 54 – 8 can be 54 – 4 – 4. (Again, break apart the number being subtracted into parts that make the work easier.)

It is well worth the time that you invest with students doing mental math. In As well as being a great life-skill, mental math allows students to be flexible with numbers and use powerful thinking strategies.

Mental Math and Basic Facts — don’t skip these important things!
Mathematically yours,


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